**Current-Voltage Relationships and Ohm’s Law – Learn**

**Current, Voltage **and** Resistance** are common terms that are used to describe electricity in circuits.

Current is the amount of charge that passes through a point in a conductor each second. The symbol for current is I and the unit is amps (A).

Voltage (potential difference) is the work done to move a charge against an electric field between two points. The symbol for voltage is V and the unit for voltage is volts (V)

Resistance is a measure of how difficult it is for current to flow through a material. The symbol for resistance is R and resistance is measured in ohms (Ω). There are several factors that effect the resistance of a conductor:

- Length – If the material has a longer length, this will result in a higher number of collisions with other ions within the conductor, increasing the resistance and making it harder for the current to flow.
- Cross-sectional area – With a large cross-sectional area, there is less chance of collisions and the resistance will decrease.
- Temperature – Higher temperatures will result in an increased vibration of the ions, making the chances of electrons colliding higher and the resistance will increase.

**Ohm’s Law:**

Ohm’s law describes the relationship between current, voltage and resistance:

where:

= the voltage (in V)

= the current (in A)

= the resistance (in Ω).

**Ohmic and non-ohmic resistors:**

**Ohmic conductors** obey Ohm’s law and have a constant resistance. The resistance of **non-ohmic conductors** varies for different voltages. Light bulbs are an example of a non-ohmic conductor. The resistance of light bulb increases as the temperature of the filament increases.

Ohmic and non-ohmic conductors can be explored by plotting a graph of current vs voltage. The graph for an ohmic conductor is a straight line. The resistance can be found from the gradient of the graph. The current vs voltage graph for a non-ohmic conductor is not a straight line.

**Example 1:**

What voltage will flow through a wire with a resistance of 1.5Ω to produce a current of 4A?

**Answer:**

Using

where:

= 4A

= 1.5Ω

= 6V

**Example 2:**

What is the resistance of a wire that produces a current of 8A when a voltage of 2V is applied?

**Answer:**

Using and rearranging to give:

where:

= 2V

= 8A

=0.25Ω